• BB&DPS – Best Balance & Distance Per Stroke: 5 strokes or less in the 4 styles in a short course pool, 10 strokes or less in long course – “Tai Chi Swimming.”  Please go to T.I.P.S. for a more detailed explanation.
  • OB          Over Best:  # of strokes recommended over your BBDPS count
  • TOR        Turn Over Rate
  • Y             FlY
  • K             BacK
  •              BreasT
  • E              FreE
  • uw           Underwater
  • kk            Kick
  •  ‘              Minutes
  • “              Seconds
  • w/            with: utilized to indicate a number of seconds of rest between repetitions
  • on:          to indicate that everyone will do a repetition on a set send-off
  • Description of Training Set:  25’ x (5 x 100 /10”)w/30” – During 25 minutes, you swim sets of 5 one-hundreds taking 10 seconds to rest after each and taking 30 seconds rest after 5.


EKTY 1, 2, 3, 4 – Free, Back, Breast, Fly.  Swim the number of laps, in each stroke, written at the end the four strokes, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 means that you swim 1 lap of each stroke, then 2 of each, then 3 of each, and finish with 4 laps of each stroke or 25, 50, 75 and 100 for each stroke.  Pay attention to what distance needs to be done at BBDPS, 1 OB (over best), 2 OB, 3 OB, etc.


Fins {EY: b, s, b, s – This kicking set requires the use of fins, alternating sequences of flutter (E) and dolphin (Y) kicks; one length each on the belly, right side, back, and left side.  On the belly and back try to stay underwater and streamlined the whole length, if you need a breath on the belly take a stroke, breathe and dive in again; on the back, float up and kick the rest of the way at the surface.  On the sides, remain on the ‘I’ position, (trailing arm down on the top leg – shoulder to the sky, leading arm extended above the head – armpit to the bottom).  For more explanations on body positions described with letters, go to TIPS and see The Letters of the Strokes.  Observe the distances, (200’s, 100’s or 50’s), and time intervals of rest recommended.


  1. a) SCULL # 3: Push off on streamline glide, do 1 underwater breast stroke pullout, leave the arms parallel to the body, slightly under the thighs, and continue doing figure “8” sweeps with the two hands; move from the shoulder, not from the elbow.  If you need to breathe, turn your face to the side or front, arch your body to assist in body balance, no use of hands, and breathe; then continue sculling as long as each breath lasts.
  2. b) SCULL # 4: Streamline off the wall on your back, press both sidearms down to the sides, and continue sculling, figure “8” motions with the two hands, slightly below your buttocks.  Move the arm from the shoulder, do not push the water by bending the elbows.  Since you are on your back, breathing is easy, breathe with mouth and exhale with nose.


During warm-up triathletes are encouraged to swim the 4 styles, it is warm-up for the entire musculoskeletal system; furthermore, swimming breaststroke can help in a race situation in the event of a foot or calf cramp, the breast kick requires to flex the foot, the way to get rid of said cramps; swimming backstroke will help the triathletes to ‘find core’, connecting the hands to the power source, the hip rotation, while keeping the head set, (no need to turn the head to breathe); the butterfly, will make you more aquatic.  When swimmers do Individual Medley:  Y, K, T, and E:  FLY, BACK, BREAST, FREE; Tri-athletes swim:  Naked (no equipment), Paddles, Fins, Both



1 stroke in Y and T is one extension to the front end; count the letter at the breath and the number at the “glide.”  1 stroke in E and K is counted when both arms have completed a revolution, the letter for one hand, and the number for the other hand; count when the revolution is completed at hand entry.  The recommended “Number of Strokes OB” over best is for short course pools, if you train in a long course pool double the recommended number and add a stroke.  Obviously, the lack of turn and the extra distance makes a difference.  For example if the set reads swim at 1 ½ to 2 ½ OB, it means that in the long course pool you will swim at 4 to 6 strokes over your best stroke count.  We know that when you take more strokes you swim faster, up to a point that your style may suffer or tire you too quickly.  Pay attention: count strokes.  When equipment such as paddles and/or fins are used deduct ½ stroke from the OB for each accessory that you wear.

Date:  08-28-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 20′ x EKTY x 1, 2, 3, 4 1x 25 ea str. @ BB

2x 25 ea str. @ 1 & 2 OB

3x 25 ea str. @ BB & 2 & 4 OB

4x 25 ea str. @ 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 OB

Kick Set 4 x 200 w/20″ Fins EY {b, s, b, s 200’s w/20″ rest until 15′ finish
An. Threshold EN3

Intensity: 3 to 4 OB

35′ x {(1 x 200 w/30″

{(1 x 400 w/45″

{(2 x 100 w/20”)w/30”

{(4 x 100 w/20”)w/45”

{(4 x 50 w/15”)w/30”

{(8 x 50 w/15”)w/45”

 Repeat 1x 200, 1x 400, until 35’ finish.  Observe the resting intervals: straight swims, broken in 100’s, broken in 50’s.
Sprint Set SP3 3 x (4 x 6 str on 1:15) w/50 drill


3 sets of 4 repetitions of 6 strokes from push off, ALL OUT, NO BREATH; swim easy to the 50, restart on the 1:15; after 4 rep’s, do a 50 drill of the week.  See Basics
VO2max SP1

Intensity: 4½ to 5½ OB

12 x 50 on 1:30 Choice of stroke, one stroke the entire set.
Date:  08-29-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 15′ x EKTY x 3, 2, 1 300 @ BBDPS.  EZ swim until time is up.
Kick Set 6 x 100 on 2:15 Fins EY {b, s, b, s 100’s w/15″ rest until 15′ finish
Aerobic Training EN2

Count: (A to K) x 3

Intensity: 1½ to 2½ OB

Paddles and Fins

45′ x {(3 x 550 w/30”) w/1:30”

{(11 x 150 w/10”) w/1:30”

Swim 1 mile 2 or 3 times count (A to K) x 3, try to swim a linear set, maintain your pace do not slow down
Prolonged Sprint SP3 2 x {4 x (5 + turn + 3) on 2:15

100 or (50)

W/50 drill, after 4 repetitions

On the first set swim freestyle, second set choose your best stroke other than free.

2 sets of 4 repetitions of 5 strokes + turn + 3 strokes ALL OUT, no breath, then swim easy to the 100 or 50 and back to mid pool, restart every 2:15.  Start from “mid pool” or a distance from the wall at which you need 5 strokes to get to the wall.  In fly, you will breathe at the wall, breast rhythm requires breathing every stroke, and on back your face is out of the water.
Date:  08-30-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 20′ x EKTY x 2, 2, 2 200 @ BBDPS.  EZ swim until time is up after that @ 1 – 2 OB.
Aerobic Training EN2

Intensity:  1½ to 2½ OB

Count:  A to D

45′ x 200 w/15” to 20” Swim 200’s, one of each stroke, observe the rest intervals.  One each: Y, K, T, E, and IM.
Lactate An. Resistance SP2

Intensity:  6 to 7 OB

Count:  A

12 x 50 w/ 75” Swim 12x 50’s dive in and race try to make it with as few breaths as possible, including no breath for the more advanced athletes in and out of the turns.  Swim Freestyle.
Warm down Swim until H.R. < 100 in 60″ Easy swimming check heart rate every 3′ to 5′
Date:  08-31-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 20′ x EKTY x 4, 3, 2, 1 400 @ BBDPS.  EZ swim until time is up.
Kick Set 20′ x 50 w/10″ Fins EY {b, s, b, s 50’s w/15″ rest until 15′ finish
An. Threshold EN 3

Intensity:  3 – 4½ OB

Paddles optional

30′ x 100 w/ 30” to 40” 100’s observe the recommended resting intervals.  Stroke choice, prefer NO free.
In Motion Speed SP3 2 x {(6 x 25 on 1:10) w/50 drill

6 str

2 sets of 6 repetitions of 25’s, sprint into the wall all out, no breathe the last 6 strokes
Date:  09-01-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 15′ x EKTY x 1, 1, 1 200 @ BBDPS.  EZ swim until time is up.
Aerobic Training EN2

Intensity: 1½ to 2½ OB

50′ x (5 x 100 w/10”) w/30” A to J Swim 5x 100 with 10”, take 30″ rest after 5, repeat until 40′
An. Threshold EN 3

Intensity:  3 to 4 OB

Fins optional

25′ x 200 w/45″ Y count A to D Swim 200’s take 45″ at the end, repeat until 25′ are finished
Kick Set 10′ x {(1 x 200 w/15”)

{(2 x 100 w/10”) w/20”

{(4 x 50 w/ 5”) w/20”

Fins EY {b, s, b, s

1x 200, 2x 100, 4x 50, watch the recommended rest in the middle of the kick set and at the end of each loop.
Date:  09-02-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 20′ x EKTY x 4, 4, 2 400 @ BBDPS.  EZ swim until time is up.
Aerobic Training EN 2

Intensity: 2 to 3 OB

45′ x {1 x 100 rev. IM w/15“

{2 x 75 str-E-str w/15“

{2 x 50 kk sides w/fins w/15”

{2 x 25 no breath uw  w/15”

Repeat each swim as written, taking 15″ rest between each.  Restart until 45′ are finished.  The rev. IM is ETKY, the 75’s are 3rd best and 4th best strokes in each.

The 50’s are on the side, bottom arm leading, top arm trailing.  The 25’s are underwater.

Sprint Set SP3 4 x 5 strokes on 1:30 w/50 drill


4 repetitions of sprint ALL OUT, no breath for 5 strokes, swim easy to the 50
Lactate An. Tolerance SP2

5½ to 7 OB

4 x 200 w/10’ try to swim an easy 200 after each effort. 4x 200’s dive-in, choice of stroke.  Interval as shown
Warm Down EN1 600 E, K, E, T, E, Y Easy swim on E breathe e/5