• BB&DPS – Best Balance & Distance Per Stroke: 5 strokes or less in the 4 styles in a short course pool, 10 strokes or less in long course – “Tai Chi Swimming.”  Please go to T.I.P.S. for a more detailed explanation.
  • OB          Over Best:  # of strokes recommended over your BBDPS count
  • TOR        Turn Over Rate
  • Y             FlY
  • K             BacK
  •              BreasT
  • E              FreE
  • uw           Underwater
  • kk            Kick
  •  ‘              Minutes
  • “              Seconds
  • w/            with: utilized to indicate a number of seconds of rest between repetitions
  • on:          to indicate that everyone will do a repetition on a set send-off
  • Description of Training Set:  25’ x (5 x 100 /10”)w/30” – During 25 minutes, you swim sets of 5 one-hundreds taking 10 seconds to rest after each and taking 30 seconds rest after 5.


EKTY 1, 2, 3, 4 – Free, Back, Breast, Fly.  Swim the number of laps, in each stroke, written at the end the four strokes, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 means that you swim 1 lap of each stroke, then 2 of each, then 3 of each, and finish with 4 laps of each stroke or 25, 50, 75 and 100 for each stroke.  Pay attention to what distance needs to be done at BBDPS, 1 OB (over best), 2 OB, 3 OB, etc.


Fins {EY: b, s, b, s – This kicking set requires the use of fins, alternating sequences of flutter (E) and dolphin (Y) kicks; one length each on the belly, right side, back, and left side.  On the belly and back try to stay underwater and streamlined the whole length, if you need a breath on the belly take a stroke, breathe and dive in again; on the back, float up and kick the rest of the way at the surface.  On the sides, remain on the ‘I’ position, (trailing arm down on the top leg – shoulder to the sky, leading arm extended above the head – armpit to the bottom).  For more explanations on body positions described with letters, go to TIPS and see The Letters of the Strokes.  Observe the distances, (200’s, 100’s or 50’s), and time intervals of rest recommended.


Shark Stroke:  Pretend to lie on your stomach on top of your bicycle seat and move the pedals (down deep) with your hands. Bend one leg at the knee to point your toes to the sky, which is the dorsal fin, kick fast and in a small space with the other leg; switch legs at mid pool or on the second lap.

Russian Breaststroke:  Hold one ankle with the opposite hand behind your butt:  right to left and left to right.  With the free extremities, swim breaststroke, with correct breathing and timing.  Change hand and foot on the second lap.

During warm-up triathletes are encouraged to swim the 4 styles, it is warm-up for the entire musculoskeletal system; furthermore, swimming breaststroke can help in a race situation in the event of a foot or calf cramp, the breast kick requires to flex the foot, the way to get rid of said cramps; swimming backstroke will help the triathletes to ‘find core’, connecting the hands to the power source, the hip rotation, while keeping the head set, (no need to turn the head to breathe); the butterfly, will make you more aquatic.  When swimmers do Individual Medley:  Y, K, T, and E:  FLY, BACK, BREAST, FREE; Tri-athletes swim: N, P, F, B: Naked (no equipment), Paddles, Fins, Both

1 stroke in Y and T is one extension to the front end; count the letter at the breath and the number at the “glide.”

1 stroke in E and K is counted when both arms have completed a revolution, the letter for one hand, and the number for the other hand; count when the revolution is completed at hand entry.

The recommended “Number of Strokes OB” over best is for short course pools, if you train in a long course pool double the recommended number and add a stroke.  Obviously, the lack of turn and the extra distance makes a difference.  For example if the set reads swim at 1 ½ to 2 ½ OB, it means that in the long course pool you will swim at 4 to 6 strokes over your best stroke count.  We know that when you take more strokes you swim faster, up to a point that your style may suffer or tire you too quickly.

Pay attention:

Count strokes.  When equipment such as paddles and/or fins are used deduct ½ stroke from the OB for each accessory that you wear.

Count your strokes and monitor your heart rate you will optimize your training. If you know your time, you are really paying attention.  Training is about going FAST at the right times, as fast as YOU can, easy enough so you last every set, all out!  Swimming “hard” all the time can be hazardous to your style and speed. Know at what pace you need to train every set.

Date:  07-08-2024 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 20′ x EKTY x 1, 2, 3, 4 100 @ BBDPS, 200 @ 1 OB, 300 @ 2 OB, 400 @ 3 OB, for additional explanations please go to Basics
Kick Set 20′ x 200 w/20″ Fins EY {b, s, b, s 200’s w/20″ rest until 20′ finish
An. Threshold EN3

Intensity: 3 – 4 OB

Equipment:  Paddles

30′ x {(4 x 50 w/10”) w/30″ A to D

{(8 x 50 w/10”) w/45” A to H

 Repeat 1x (4 x 50), 1x (8 x 50), until 30’ finish.  Observe the resting interval.
Sprint Set SP3 2 x (4 x 6 str on 1:30) w/100 drill


Drill:  Shark stroke

Russian breaststroke

2 sets of 4 repetitions of 6 strokes ALL OUT, no breath; swim easy to the 50, restart on the 1:30; after 4 rep’s, do a 50 of each drill of the week.  See Basics
Date:  07-09-2024 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 15′ x EKTY x 3, 2, 1 300 @ BBDPS, 200 @ 1 OB, 100 @ 2 OB, for additional explanations please go to Basics
Kick Set 10′ x 100 w/15″ Fins EY {b, s, b, s 100’s w/15″ rest until 15′ finish
Aerobic Training EN2

Count: A to R on 150’s

A to T on 100 & 50

Intensity:  1½ to 2½ OB

Paddles and Zoomers or Fins

45′ x {(6 x 150 w/15”) w/1:30 rest

{(10 x 100 w/10”) w/ 1:30’

{(20 x 50 w/05”) w / 1:30’

Swim 150’s, 100’s and 50’s, watch the duration of rest intervals.  Work on a linear set, maintain your pace, and keep your stroke count constant.  Work your walls: perfect streamline glides after every turn.
Prolonged Sprint SP3 2 x {(4 x (5 + turn + 3) on 2:15)

75 or (50)

w/100 drill after each set of 4

First set swim freestyle, second set choose your best stroke other than free.

2 sets of 4 repetitions of 5 strokes + turn + 3 strokes ALL OUT, NO BREATH.  Start from “mid pool” or a distance from the wall at which you need 5 strokes to get to the wall.  The first set freestyle; then, the second set if you do:

a)       Fly you will breathe at the wall

b)       Breast rhythm requires to breathe every stroke,

c)       Back your face is out of the water

Date:  07-10-2024 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 15′ x EKTY x 2, 2, 2 200 @ BBDPS, 200 @ 1 OB, 200 @ 2 OB, 200 @ 3 OB, for additional explanations please go to Basics
Aerobic Training EN2

1½ to 2½ OB

45′ x (4 x 50w/5”) w/15” Swim 200’s broken, one of each stroke, observe the rest intervals.  One each: Y, K, T, E, and IM.
Resistance to Speed SP3

Maximum Acceleration

2 x {8, 10(11), 12(14), 14(17) strokes


On 2:15.  Make sure you can make 14 strokes, before you attempt 17 strokes all out no breath.

Swim 50’s dive in and race the number of strokes listed, every time you make it all out, no breath, and advance to the next stroke count.  You may choose any style.  If you do breast, you can breathe every stroke, rhythm is more important than breath holding.
Warm down Swim until H.R. < 100 in 60″ Easy swimming check heart rate every 3′ to 5′
Date:  07-11-2024 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 20′ x EKTY x 3, 3, 3… 300 @ BBDPS, 300 @ 1 OB, 300 @ 2 OB, for additional explanations please go to Basics
Kick Set 20′ x 50 w/10″ Fins EY {b, s, b, s 50’s w/10″ rest until 15′ finish
An. Threshold EN 3

3 – 4 ½ OB

Paddles optional

30′ x {(2 x 50 w/15”) w/ 30”

{(4 x 25 w/10”) w/ 30”

100’s broken observe the recommended resting intervals.

Stroke choice, prefer NO free.

In Motion Speed SP3 2 x {(4 x 25 on 1:00) w/100 drill

6 str

2 sets of 4 repetitions of 25’s, sprint into the wall ALL OUT, NO BREATH the last 6 strokes.  Swim 100 yards of drill of the week
Date:  07-12-2024 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 15′ x EKTY x 1, 1, 1 100 @ BBDPS, 100 @ 1 OB, 100 @ 2 OB, 100 @ 3 OB, 100 @ 4 OB and restart at BBDPS if time permits for additional explanations please go to Basics
Aerobic Training EN2

1½ to 2½ OB

40′ x {(5 x 100 w/10”) w/20” E

{(10 x 50 w/05”) w/20” E

Count A to J

Swim 500’s broken with 10” after each 100 or  5” after each 50, take 20” rest at the end of J, repeat until 40′
An. Threshold EN 3

3 to 4 OB

Fins optional

25′ x {(4 x 50w/15”)} w/45″

{(8 x 25w/10”)} w/45”

Count A to D

Stroke:  Butterfly recommended

Swim 200’s butterfly broken, take 45″ at the end, repeat until 25′ are finished. Use fins, if you want to.  Triathletes, may switch stroke.
Kick Set 10′ x {(1 x 200 w/15”)

{(2 x 100 w/10”) w/20”

{(4 x 50 w/ 5”) w/20”

Fins EY {b, s, b, s

1x 200, 2x 100, 4x 50, watch the recommended rest in the middle of the swim and at the end.
Date:  07-13-2024 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 20′ x EKTY x 4, 4, 2 400 @ BBDPS, 400 @ 1 – 1½ OB, 200 @ 2-2 ½ OB swim, for additional explanations please go to Basics
Aerobic Training EN 2 45′ x {1 x 100 rev. IM w/15”

{2 x 75 str-E-str w/15”

{2 x 50 kk sides w/fins w/15”

{2 x 25 no breath underwater, w/15”

Repeat each swim taking 15″ rest between each.  Restart the set until 45′ are finished.  The rev. IM is ETKY, the 75’s are 3rd best and 4th best strokes in each.

The 50’s are on the side, bottom arm leading, top arm trailing.  The 25’s are underwater.

Sprint Set SP3 4 x 5 strokes on 1:30 w/50 drill


4 repetitions of sprint ALL OUT, NO BREATH for 5 strokes, swim easy to the 50
Lactate An. Power SP2

5½ to 7 OB

2 x (4 x 50 on 3:30) w/5’ try to swim an easy 50 or 100 after each effort. 2 sets of 4 x 50, dive-in, choice of stroke.  Interval as shown.
Warm Down EN1 600 E, K, E, T, E, Y Very easy swim