• BB&DPS – Best Balance & Distance Per Stroke: 5 strokes or less in the 4 styles in a short course pool, 10 strokes or less in long course – “Tai Chi Swimming.”  Please go to T.I.P.S. for a more detailed explanation.
  • OB          Over Best:  # of strokes recommended over your BBDPS count
  • TOR        Turn Over Rate
  • Y             FlY
  • K             BacK
  •              BreasT
  • E              FreE
  • uw           Underwater
  • kk            Kick
  •  ‘              Minutes
  • “              Seconds
  • w/            with: utilized to indicate a number of seconds of rest between repetitions
  • on:          to indicate that everyone will do a repetition on a set send-off
  • Description of Training Set:  25’ x (5 x 100 /10”)w/30” – During 25 minutes, you swim sets of 5 one-hundreds taking 10 seconds to rest after each and taking 30 seconds rest after 5.


EKTY 1, 2, 3, 4 – Free, Back, Breast, Fly.  Swim the number of laps, in each stroke, written at the end the four strokes, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 means that you swim 1 lap of each stroke, then 2 of each, then 3 of each, and finish with 4 laps of each stroke or 25, 50, 75 and 100 for each stroke.  Pay attention to what distance needs to be done at BBDPS, 1 OB (over best), 2 OB, 3 OB, etc.


Fins {EY: b, s, b, s – This kicking set requires the use of fins, alternating sequences of flutter (E) and dolphin (Y) kicks; one length each on the belly, right side, back, and left side.  On the belly and back try to stay underwater and streamlined the whole length, if you need a breath on the belly take a stroke, breathe and dive in again; on the back, float up and kick the rest of the way at the surface.  On the sides, remain on the ‘I’ position, (trailing arm down on the top leg – shoulder to the sky, leading arm extended above the head – armpit to the bottom).  For more explanations on body positions described with letters, go to TIPS and see The Letters of the Strokes.  Observe the distances, (200’s, 100’s or 50’s), and time intervals of rest recommended.


  1. a) Scull toward your feet, on belly, arms above head: balance body weight by pressing chest and chin as a unit. Then, scull your hands figure 8, palms facinng to the ceiling, the wall that you’re coming from, so you travel down to your feet, be ready to do a “reverse” flutter kick with your feet, in order to keep your legs afloat, a series of flextions of the instep, careful not to bend your knees. 
  2. b) Scull toward your feet, on back, arms above head: nose to the sky, press the back of your head to the water to unload the hips and scull your hands, palms facing the wall you are coming from, the ceiling, travel downward; to start: push with your arms from the wall.


During warm-up triathletes are encouraged to swim the 4 styles, it is warm-up for the entire musculoskeletal system; furthermore, swimming breaststroke can help in a race situation in the event of a foot or calf cramp, the breast kick requires to flex the foot, the way to get rid of said cramps; swimming backstroke will help the triathletes to ‘find core’, connecting the hands to the power source, the hip rotation, while keeping the head set, (no need to turn the head to breathe); the butterfly, will make you more aquatic.  When swimmers do Individual Medley:  Y, K, T, and E:  FLY, BACK, BREAST, FREE; Tri-athletes swim:  Naked (no equipment), Paddles, Fins, Both



1 stroke in Y and T is one extension to the front end; count the letter at the breath and the number at the “glide.”  1 stroke in E and K is counted when both arms have completed a revolution, the letter for one hand, and the number for the other hand; count when the revolution is completed at hand entry.  The recommended “Number of Strokes OB” over best is for short course pools, if you train in a long course pool double the recommended number and add a stroke.  Obviously, the lack of turn and the extra distance makes a difference.  For example if the set reads swim at 1 ½ to 2 ½ OB, it means that in the long course pool you will swim at 4 to 6 strokes over your best stroke count.  We know that when you take more strokes you swim faster, up to a point that your style may suffer or tire you too quickly.  Pay attention: count strokes.  When equipment such as paddles and/or fins are used deduct ½ stroke from the OB for each accessory that you wear.

Date: 02-20-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 20′ x EKTY x 1, 2, 3, 4 100 @ BBDPS, 200 @ 1 OB, 300 @ 2 OB, 400 @ 3 OB, for additional explanations please go to Basics
Sprint Set SP3 2 x (4 x 6 str on 1:30) w/50 drill


Drill:  a) scull toward your feet – belly

b) scull toward your feet – back

2 sets of 4 repetitions of 6 strokes ALL OUT, no breath; swim easy to the 50, restart on the 1:30; after 4 rep’s, do a 50 drill of the week.  See Basics
Timed KICK 400 kick best effort

Or 2x 200

Or 4x 100

Or 8x 50

Hold board with elbows on the bottom corners; when you do not need to breathe place head in line with spine, face in water and steady stream of bubbles out the nose.
An. Threshold EN3

Intensity: 3 – 4 OB

Equipment:  Paddles

30′ x {(4 x 50 w/10”) w/30″ A to D

{(8 x 50 w/10”) w/45″ A to H

Increase the TOR 1 – 1½ strokes over the on going intensity during the 3rd 50 in the broken 200’s and 3rd 50 & 7th 50, in each of the broken 400’s

 Repeat 1x (4 x 50), 1x (8 x 50), until 30’ finish.  Observe the resting intervals.
Kick Set 20′ x 200 w/20″ Fins EY {b, s, b, s 200’s w/20″ rest until 20′ finish
 Date: 02-21-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 15′ x EKTY x 3, 2, 1 300 @ BBDPS, 200 @ 1 OB, 100 @ 2 OB, for additional explanations please go to Basics
Prolonged Sprint SP3 2 x {4 x (5 + turn + 3) on 2:15 w/50 drill

75 or (50)

a)        Fly you will breathe at the wall

b)        Breast rhythm requires to bring shoulders and heels up together, hold breath

c)        Back your face is out of the water

2 sets of 4 repetitions of 5 strokes + turn + 3 strokes ALL OUT, NO BREATH.  Start from “mid pool” or a distance from the wall at which you need 5 strokes to get to the wall.  The first set freestyle; then, the second set if you do:

first set do freestyle, second set choose your best stroke other than free.

Aerobic Training EN2

Count: (A to X)

1½  to 2½  OB

Paddles and Zoomers or Fins

50′ x {(8 x 150 w/15”) w/1:00 rest

{(12 x 100 w/10”) w/ 1:00

{(24 x 50 w/05”)

Swim 1200 broken into 150’s, 100’s and 50’s, count A to X.  Work on a linear set, maintain your pace, and keep your stroke count constant.  Work your walls: perfect streamline glides after every turn.
Kick Set 10′ x 100 w/15″ Fins EY {b, s, b, s 100’s w/15″ rest until 15′ finish
Date: 02-22-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 15′ x EKTY x 2, 2, 2 200 @ BBDPS, 200 @ 1 OB, 200 @ 2 OB, 200 @ 3 OB, for additional explanations please go to Basics
Aerobic Training EN2

1½ to 3½ OB

45′ x {4 x (2 x 100 w/10”) w/15”

{4 x (4 x 50w/5”) w/15”

Swim 200’s broken, one of each stroke, one sequence 100’s, one 50’s observe the resting intervals.  One each: Y, K, T, E.  Restart the 100’s if you have time to complete 45’ of aerobic work
Resistance to Speed SP3

6 to 7 OB

Equipment:  Buckets or parachutes, with belt to tie on waist

2 x {8, 10(11), 12(14), 14(17) str. on 2:15}


Make sure you can make 14 strokes before you attempt 17 strokes all out no breath.  First set ascending count, second set descending the count.

Swim 50’s dive in and race the number of strokes listed, every time you make it all out, no breathe, you advance to the next stroke count, then swim easy to the 50.  You may choose any style.  You can increase 8, 10, 12, 14 if going to 17 is too difficult.   If you have buckets do not dive in.
Warm down Swim until H.R. < 100 in 60″ Easy swimming check heart rate every 3′
Date: 02-23-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 20′ x EKTY x 4, 3, 2, 1 400 @ BBDPS, 300 @ 1OB, 200 @ 2OB, 100 @ 3OB, for additional explanations please go to Basics
In Motion Speed SP3 2 x {(4 x 25 on 1:00) w/50 drill

6 str

2 sets of 4 repetitions of 25’s, sprint into the wall ALL OUT, NO BREATH the last 6 strokes.  Swim a 50 drill after each set of 4.
An. Threshold EN 3

3 – 4½ OB

Paddles optional

30′ x {(2 x 50 w/15”) w/ 30”

{(4 x 25 w/10”) w/ 30”

100’s broken observe the recommended resting intervals.

Stroke choice, prefer NO free.

Kick Set 20′ x 50 w/10″ Fins EY {b, s, b, s 50’s w/10″ rest until 15′ finish
Date: 02-24-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 15′ x EKTY x 1, 1, 1 100 @ BBDPS, 100 @ 1OB, 100 @ 2OB, 100 @ 3OB, 100 @ 4OB, restart until 15’ are finished.  For additional explanations please go to Basics
Aerobic Training EN2

1½ to 2½ OB

40′ x {(5 x 100 w/10”) w/20” E

{(10 x 50 w/05”) w/20” E

Count A to J

Swim 500’s broken with 10” after each 100 or  5” after each 50, take 20” rest at the end of J, repeat until 40′
An. Threshold EN 3

3 to 4 OB

Fins optional

Up the TOR 1 – 1½ strokes over the on going intensity during the 3rd 50 and 3rd 25 & 7th 25, in each of the broken 200’s

25′ x {(4 x 50w/15”)} w/45″

{(8 x 25w/10”)} w/45”

Count A to D

Stroke:  Butterfly recommended

Swim 200’s butterfly broken one 4x 50’s with 15” rest, one 8x 25’s with 10” rest.  Take 45″ at the end, repeat until 25′ are finished. Use fins.

Triathletes, freestyle: alternate one loop w/fins, and one loop w/paddles and fins.

Kick Set 10′ x {(1 x 200 w/15”)

{(2 x 100 w/10”) w/15”

{(4 x 50 w/ 5”) w/15”

Fins EY {b, s, b, s

1x 200, 2x 100, 4x 50, watch the recommended rest in the middle of the swim and at the end.
Date: 02-25-2023 Workout Today
Energy System Exercise Set Exercise Description
Warm Up EN1 20′ x EKTY x 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2 100 @ BBDPS, 200 @ 1OB, 100 @ 2OB, 200 @ 3OB, 100 @ 4OB, 200 @ BBDPS until 20’ are finished.  For additional explanations please go to Basics
Aerobic Training EN 2 45′ x {1 x 100 rev. IM w/15”

{2 x 75 str-E-str w/15”

{2 x 50 kk sides w/fins w/15”

{2 x 25 no breath uw  w/15”

Repeat each swim taking 15″ rest between each.  Restart the set until 45′ are finished.  The rev. IM is ETKY, the 75’s are 3rd best and 4th best strokes in each.

The 50’s are on the side, bottom arm leading, top arm trailing.  The 25’s are underwater.

Sprint Set SP3 4 x 5 strokes on 1:30 w/50 drill


4 repetitions of sprint ALL OUT, NO BREATH for 5 strokes, swim easy to the 50
Lact.  An. Power SP2

5 ½ to 7 OB

2 x (4 x 50 on 3:30) w/5’

Swim an easy 50 or 100 after each all out effort.

2 sets of 4 x 50, dive-in, choice of stroke.  Interval as shown.
Warm Down EN1 600 E, K, E, T, E, Y Very easy swim